Statistical tests are important tools for data scientists. They help test hypotheses and make informed decisions. You can interpret data and uncover insights with the help of these tests. Here are ten essential statistical tests every data scientist should know.

## 1. T-Test

The T-Test compares the means of two groups to determine if they are different. Use it with small sample sizes. Data should be normally distributed.

H₀: There is no difference between the means of the two groups.

H₁: There is a difference between the means of the groups.

Formula:

Results:

**p-value**: If p < 0.05, it means the means are likely different.**Confidence Interval**: It shows the range where the actual difference in means is probably found.

## 2. Chi-Square Test

The Chi-Square Test checks if there is a association between two categorical variables. It compares observed frequencies to expected frequencies. It requires a large sample size.

H₀: There is no association between the two categorical variables.

H₁: There is an association between the categorical variables.

Formula:

Results:

**p-value**: If p < 0.05, it suggests that an association between the variables exists.**Chi-Square Statistic**: It shows how much the observed values differ from what we expected.

## 3. ANOVA (Analysis of Variance)

ANOVA tests whether there are differences between the means of three or more groups. It helps to understand if any of the group means are different from each other.

H₀: All group means are equal.

H₁: At least one group mean is different.

Formula:

Results:

**F-Statistic**: Compares between-group variance to within-group variance.**p-value**: If p < 0.05, it means that at least one group mean is different.

## 4. Mann-Whitney U Test

The Mann-Whitney U Test is a non-parametric test that compares the distributions of two independent groups. It is used when data is not normally distributed.

H₀: The distributions of the two groups are equal.

H₁: The distributions of the two groups are different.

Formula:

Results:

**U Statistic**: Determines if one distribution tends to have higher values than the other.**p-value**: f p < 0.05, it means the distributions are likely different.

## 5. Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Test

The Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Test compares two related samples to assess differences. It is used when data is not normally distributed. It is a non-parametric alternative to the paired T-Test.

H₀: The median difference between paired observations is zero.

H₁: The median difference between paired observations is not zero.

Formula:

Results:

**W Statistic**: Summarizes the ranks of the differences.**p-value**: If p < 0.05, it means there is a significant difference in medians.

## 6. Kruskal-Wallis H Test

The Kruskal-Wallis H Test is a non-parametric method for comparing more than two independent groups. It extends the Mann-Whitney U Test to multiple groups.

H₀: All group distributions are equal.

H₁: At least one group distribution is different.

Formula:

Results:

**H Statistic**: Determines if there are differences in median ranks.**p-value**: If p < 0.05, it indicates that at least one group differs.

## 7. Fisher’s Exact Test

Fisher’s Exact Test determines if there are nonrandom associations between two categorical variables. It works for small sample sizes. It is computationally intensive for large samples.

H₀: There is no association between the two categorical variables.

H₁: There is an association between the categorical variables.

Formulas:

Results:

**p-value**: If p < 0.05, it means there is an association between the variables.

## 8. Pearson Correlation Coefficient

The Pearson Correlation Coefficient measures the linear relationship between two continuous variables.

H₀: There is no linear relationship between the two variables.

H₁: There is a linear relationship between the variables.

Formulas:

Results:

**r-value**: Measures the strength and direction of the linear relationship.**p-value**: If p < 0.05, it indicates a monotonic relationship.

## 9. Spearman’s Rank Correlation Coefficient

Spearman’s Rank Correlation measures the strength of the monotonic relationship between two ranked variables. It is used for ordinal data.

H₀: There is no monotonic relationship between the two variables.

H₁: There is a monotonic relationship between the variables.

Formula:

Results:

**ρ-value**: Measures the strength and direction of the monotonic relationship.**p-value**: This indicates a monotonic relationship.

## 10. Logistic Regression Test

Logistic Regression models the probability of a binary outcome based on predictor variables. It calculates how likely an event is to happen.

H₀: The predictor variables have no effect on the probability of the binary outcome.

H₁: At least one predictor variable has an effect on the probability of the binary outcome.

Formula:

Results:

**Odds Ratios**: Indicates the change in odds for a one-unit change in a predictor.**p-values**: If p < 0.05 for any predictor, it means that predictor significantly affects the outcome.

## Wrapping Up

This article covers ten key statistical tests that are essential for data analysis. You can study about more statistical tests also. Master these techniques to make better decisions and strengthen your data science expertise.